Symptoms of a blood clot

Symptoms of a blood clot

Definition of a blood clot is a semi-solid or gelatinous mass of blood that forms to prevent the loss of a lot of blood when exposed to cuts or injuries.

As soon as a wound or injury occurs in the blood vessel, the platelets stick to the edges of the wound and attract more platelets to stop the bleeding, then the clotting factors, which are small particles, produce threads of fibrin to stick together and block the wound from the inside, and this leads to the healing of the blood and the vessel to heal The clot after a few days.

Although a clot is usually not harmful if it does not move from its place, it becomes dangerous if it moves from one place to another through the veins, as it may stand in one place and prevent blood from flowing, and this stopping may cause a medical emergency.

Symptoms of the blood clot

Blood clots, or what is also known as clots, may occur without any initial symptoms or signs, but if symptoms and signs appear, they may be similar to other diseases. It is reported that about 50% of those who have these clots do not feel any symptoms. These symptoms vary depending on the location of the clot as follows:

  • Blood clot in the brain: In addition to severe and sudden headache, its symptoms include sudden difficulty with vision or speech, as well as other symptoms.
  • A blood clot in the heart: a person with this condition feels heaviness and pain in the chest, and may also have shortness of breath, headache, and other symptoms. It is noteworthy that heart thrombosis is not very common among people.
  • A blood clot in the leg: Symptoms include pain, swelling, bluish skin color, and a feeling of warmth in the affected area. Symptoms vary depending on the size of the clot, so some may not have any symptoms, or they may have mild symptoms if the clot is small.
  • Blood clot in the lung: Symptoms include palpitations, unexplained shortness of breath, chest pain, and coughing up blood. Abdominal blood clot: Symptoms include severe abdominal pain, diarrhea, and vomiting.

Factors that necessitate resorting to a doctor

There are several factors that increase the risk of developing blood clots, including the following:

  1. staying in the hospital or home for a long time; This is usually after major surgery.
  2. traveling on long trips; This is especially true in trips during which a person remains in a sitting position for 4 hours or more.
  3. Age; Especially among those over 65 years old.
  4. Smoking.
  5. Having a family history of blood clots. Overweight. Pregnancy in women. Use of some contraceptives.

Factors that reduce the risk of blood clots

Tips to keep in mind to prevent blood clots include the following:

  • Ask the doctor's opinion about the possibility of using blood thinners or compression stockings to prevent the formation of clots in the event of a need for long-term hospitalization.
  • Talk to your doctor about the possibility of hormonal medications causing clots to form.
  • Losing weight if it is excessive.
  • Movement at least every hour when traveling by plane or something else, especially if the travel period is 4 hours or more.
  • Stop driving at least every two hours and get some movement.
  • Moving the toes and the ankle joint in a circular motion while sitting if there is no possibility to stand.
  • Exercising and staying active.

blood clot treatment

Venous thrombosis treatment

The person with venous thrombosis is usually given blood-thinning drugs to help the clot pass through. The doctor may also perform a medical procedure for the patient to place a filter in the inferior vena cava, and this medical procedure is recommended for people at high risk of thrombosis; The filter is placed inside a vein to prevent clots from moving through the vein to the lungs or heart.

Treatment of arterial blood clots

The doctor may perform a medical procedure known as catheter-guided thrombolysis; Where drugs are delivered to break the clot in place or surgery to remove the clot, these treatments are important because arterial clots can block blood flow to major organs in the body. It is noteworthy that these treatments are usually used in life-threatening cases only.

What are the causes of blood clotting?

What are the causes of blood clotting?

Blood clotting

The process of blood clotting is one of the natural processes in the human body, which contributes significantly to the process of hemostasis, which in turn works to prevent bleeding by repairing damage to blood vessels. The hemostasis process is divided into two stages, primary hemostasis; Which includes the agglutination of blood platelets and the formation of the so-called platelet plug at the damaged part of the lining of the blood vessel. The second stage is secondary hemostasis; It involves many complex processes that ultimately lead to the conversion of the prothrombin protein in the blood into thrombin, which in turn converts fibrinogen into fibrin molecules that work with the help of Coagulation factor XIII forms a network of fibrin, and this network serves to stabilize and support the lamellar plug.

Causes of blood clotting

As mentioned previously, blood clotting helps to stop bleeding and repair damage to blood vessels, and naturally, blood should not coagulate within blood vessels without bleeding, but some people may suffer from disorders that lead to the formation of a blood clot in an artery or vein without the presence of a certain cause such as bleeding, or as a result of the body's failure to dissolve the blood clot after the affected area, which in turn increases the risk of some serious health complications, and it should be noted that these disorders are divided into genetic disorders and acquired disorders.

Genetic Disorders There are a number of genetic disorders that increase the risk of hypercoagulation, including the following:

  • Increased level of fibrinogen: A genetic disorder can lead to an increase in the level of fibrinogen in the blood, or distort it, which increases the chance of blood clots forming.
  • Increasing the proportion of some clotting factors: The risk of blood clot formation increases as a result of an increase in the proportion of some clotting factors in the blood, such as factors VIII, IX, and XI.
  • Deficiency of some proteins: A decrease in the level of one of the natural proteins that prevent blood clot formation such as protein C, protein S, and antithrombin leads to an increase in the rate of blood clot formation in the blood vessels.
  • Disruption of the blood clot dissolving system: such as a decrease in the level of plasmin enzyme in the blood, or an increase in the percentage of the factor responsible for inhibiting plasmin in the blood.
  • Other disorders: Among other disorders that may lead to an increased risk of blood clot formation in the blood vessels, Factor V Leiden mutation; is the most common mutation and an elevated level of homocysteine ​​in the blood.

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